AQUATON™ green water treatment with environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂)

Chandwin Engineering, in collaboration with the National University of Water and Environmental Management and the State Ecological Academy (SEA), developed and investigated the biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds and environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) synthesized by application for water treatment.

Green" AQUATON™ and site-synthesised environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) for water treatment have been classified as a "low toxicity substance by intragastric intake" hazard class.
No sensitising, allergenic, gonadotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects have been identified in long-term toxicological experiments on animals. A big advantage of this reagent is its lack of volatility, i.e. the danger of inhalation exposure is excluded.

"AQUATON™ Green Agent and environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂), synthesised at the point of use for water treatment, are approved for use in drinking water treatment processes, disinfection of swimming pool water, water storage and transport tanks, treatment and disinfection of natural, municipal and industrial waste water. Well soluble in water, odourless and not aggressive to various materials. It is biodegradable and environmentally safe.

AQUATON™-type biocidal polymeric guanidine reagent and environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂), synthesised at the point of use for water treatment, has a wide range of biocidal effects: bactericidal, virulicidal, sporicidal, fungicidal, algicidal, which finds wide application in technologies of treatment and disinfection of natural and waste waters, especially in joint water treatment on phytopurifications such as BIOPLATO (in water treatment using higher aquatic plants) and on self-washing block-modular FILTER-HYDROBOTS, for local conditioning of tap water for cottages, houses, neighbourhoods, field hospitals, spas, buffets, production of bottled water, etc.

#The "green" environmentally friendly AQUATON™ reagent based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds and environmentally friendly chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) synthesised for water treatment can provide a high degree of physical and chemical water purification and disinfection while simultaneously acting as flocculants and disinfectants, especially when mixed with natural suspensions of clinoptilolite (zeolite).

Results of experimental studies of the possibility of using a "green" reagent of the AQUATON™ type based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds for disinfecting aquatic environments from pathogens of dangerous infections and binding metals in their presence in the aquatic environment.
When studying the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of AQUATON™ green reagent (based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds) it was found that it has high flocculation and bactericidal activity. It has a broad spectrum of activity, especially when combined with a suspension consisting of natural, highly dispersed clinoptilolite minerals.

#The AQUATON™ green reagent based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds is active against various groups of micro-organisms (prokaryotes - Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Bacillus, lower eukaryotes - Candida, Aspergillus, Actinomycetes) and belongs to a narrow range of products active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.

The presence of enteroviruses, mainly hepatitis viruses, in water bodies is known to be particularly dangerous.

In this case water becomes a transmission factor for enteroviruses. To interrupt the chain of transmission of enteroviruses it is very important to effectively disinfect wastewater, with which enteroviruses get into drinking water supply sources. Since the barrier role of current drinking water treatment plants against biological and chemical contaminants is extremely low, it is very likely that these contaminants will enter the drinking water supply. Given the importance of the problem, the virulicide properties of the green AQUATON™ reagent were studied using a model of the most resistant poliomyelitis and coxsackievirus.

When studying the effect of AQUATON™ green reagent based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds on the infectivity of Sabin-type poliomyelitis virus, it was found that AQUATON™ at a concentration of
5 - 50 mg/l has a pronounced activity, suppressing under room temperature conditions for 60 minutes the virus infectivity by 80-93% at an initial virus concentration of 10^8 BOO/ml.

When using as a model Koksaki B viruses was established that the "green" reagent AQUATON ™ based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds has a more pronounced antiviral activity against these strains and under similar conditions inactivation of up to 99% of the initial number of viral particles was noted.
Thus, studies have shown that AQUATON™ green reagent based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds has pronounced antiviral activity against some of the most resistant viruses - poliomyelitis and coxsackievirus B.

"Green AQUATON™ effectively suppresses hepatitis viruses, influenza, tuberculosis, HIV and other dangerous pathogens. It is also effective against cholera vibriones.

When exposed to the reagent in a concentration of 0.001% cholera vibrio killed in 10 minutes and in a concentration of 0.01% - the death of cholera vibrio comes in 5 minutes.
Very important data was obtained by studying the effect of AQUATON™ on parasites and protozoa - agents of parasitic diseases (helminth infections).
In particular, it was found that 0.1% AQUATON™ solution causes complete destruction of giardia cysts in 5 days, and 0.01% - in 7 days.
These data indicate the promising use of "green" reagent AQUATON™ for rapid decontamination of sewage sludge from parasites and protozoa (eggs), which on the fields of biological treatment retain their activity for 3-5 years.

"AQUATON™ green reagent based on biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds also has the properties of a cationic flocculant.

AQUATON™ a based on the biocidal polymer guanidine compounds 1-3 mg/l has a stable flocculation effect.
"The AQUATON™ green reagent in the clinoptilolite/brusite suspension not only flocculates suspensions perfectly, but also removes dissolved organic and inorganic impurities such as biogenic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, pesticides and heavy metals from water due to its complex-forming properties.

The table below presents the results of research on the possibilities of metal ions extraction from dilute water solutions containing 1-4 MPC of metal salts, using AQUATON™ green reagent in the clinoptillolite suspension (brusite, saponite, kieselguhr, tuff).

As it is seen from the table, the highest efficiency of metal binding at the processing of dilute aqueous solutions with the "green" reagent AQUATON™ on the basis of biocidal polymeric guanidine compounds in the clinoptilolite suspension (brusite, saponite, kieselgur, tuff) is observed for such toxic metals as lead, iron, cadmium, nickel, beryllium (from 50 to 99,5%).

Thus, the obtained results show that the "green" reagent AQUATON™ in the composition of clinoptilolite suspension (brucite, saponite, diatomaceous earth, tuff) is a reagent of complex action and is very promising for use in purification and disinfection of natural and industrial and municipal waste water and its decontamination from pathogenic microorganisms and heavy metals, This will help to ensure the sanitary reliability of wastewater disposal systems and improve the environmental condition, in particular of water bodies (potential sources of drinking water supply).